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漫谈 C++ 智能指针 08

分类:c++| 发布时间:2015-11-11 08:08:00


实现 weak_ptr

在上一节中,我们通过 weak_ptr 解决了 shared_ptr 在循环引用时资源无法释放的问题。 现在让我们来看看如何实现 weak_ptr。

#include <memory>

namespace MY_DEMO {

inline void atomic_increment(std::atomic_int *ptr)
{
    ptr->fetch_add(1, std::memory_order_relaxed);
}

inline int atomic_decrement(std::atomic_int *ptr)
{
    return ptr->fetch_sub(1, std::memory_order_acq_rel);
}

inline int atomic_conditional_increment(std::atomic_int *ptr)
{
    // long r = *pw;
    // if( r != 0 ) ++*pw;
    // return r;

    int r;
    while (true) {
        r = ptr->load(std::memory_order_relaxed);
        if (r == 0) {
            return r;
        }

        if (ptr->compare_exchange_weak(r, r + 1,
                std::memory_order_relaxed, std::memory_order_relaxed)) {
            return r;
        }
    }
}

class sp_counted_base
{
public:
    sp_counted_base(): use_count_(1), weak_count_(1) {
    }

    virtual ~sp_counted_base() {
    }

    void add_ref_copy() {
        atomic_increment(&use_count_);
    }

    bool add_ref_lock() {
        return atomic_conditional_increment(&use_count_) != 0;
    }

    void release() {
        if (atomic_decrement(&use_count_) == 1) {
            dispose();
            weak_release();
        }
    }

    void weak_add_ref() {
        atomic_increment(&weak_count_);
    }

    void weak_release() {
        if (atomic_decrement(&weak_count_) == 1) {
            destroy();
        }
    }

    int use_count() const {
        return use_count_;
    }

    virtual void dispose() = 0;

    void destroy() {
        delete this;
    }

private:
    sp_counted_base(const sp_counted_base&);
    sp_counted_base& operator= (const sp_counted_base&);

    std::atomic_int use_count_;
    std::atomic_int weak_count_;
};

template<typename T>
class sp_count_impl: public sp_counted_base
{
public:
    sp_count_impl(T *p = 0): p_(p) {
    }

    virtual ~sp_count_impl() {
    }

    virtual void dispose() {
        delete p_;
        p_ = 0;
    }

private:
    T *p_;
};

class weak_count;

class shared_count
{
public:
    friend class weak_count;

    template<typename T>
    explicit shared_count(T *p = 0): pi_(new sp_count_impl<T>(p)) {
    }

    ~shared_count() {
        if (pi_ != 0) pi_->release();
    }

    template<typename T>
    shared_count(const shared_count &r): pi_(r.pi_) {
        if (pi_ != 0) {
            pi_->add_ref_copy();
        }
    }

    explicit shared_count(const weak_count &r);

    shared_count& operator=(const shared_count &r) {
        sp_counted_base *tmp = r.pi_;

        if (pi_ != tmp) {
            if (tmp != 0) tmp->add_ref_copy();
            if (pi_ != 0) pi_->release();
            pi_ = tmp;
        }

        return *this;
    }

    void swap(shared_count &r) {
        sp_counted_base *tmp = r.pi_;
        r.pi_ = pi_;
        pi_ = tmp;
    }

    int use_count() const {
        return pi_ != 0 ? pi_->use_count() : 0;
    }

    bool empty() const {
        return pi_ == 0;
    }

private:
    sp_counted_base *pi_;
};

class weak_count
{
public:
    friend class shared_count;

    weak_count(): pi_(0) {
    }

    ~weak_count() {
    }

    weak_count(const shared_count &r): pi_(r.pi_) {
        if (pi_ != 0) pi_->weak_add_ref();
    }

    weak_count(const weak_count &r): pi_(r.pi_) {
        if (pi_ != 0) pi_->weak_add_ref();
    }

    weak_count& operator=(const shared_count &r) {
        sp_counted_base *tmp = r.pi_;
        if (tmp != pi_) {
            if (tmp != 0) tmp->weak_add_ref();
            if (pi_ != 0) pi_->weak_release();
            pi_ = tmp;
        }

        return *this;
    }

    weak_count& operator=(const weak_count &r) {
        sp_counted_base *tmp = r.pi_;
        if (tmp != pi_) {
            if (tmp != 0) tmp->weak_add_ref();
            if (pi_ != 0) pi_->weak_release();
            pi_ = tmp;
        }

        return *this;
    }

    void swap(weak_count &r) {
        sp_counted_base * tmp = r.pi_;
        r.pi_ = pi_;
        pi_ = tmp;
    }

    int use_count() const {
        return pi_ != 0 ? pi_->use_count() : 0;
    }

    bool empty() const {
        return pi_ == 0;
    }

private:
    sp_counted_base *pi_;
};

inline shared_count::shared_count(const weak_count &r): pi_(r.pi_) {
    if (pi_ != 0 && !pi_->add_ref_lock()) {
        pi_ = 0;
    }
}

template<class T> class weak_ptr;

template<typename T>
class shared_ptr
{
public:
    typedef shared_ptr<T> this_type;

    explicit shared_ptr(T *p = 0): px_(p), pn_(p) {
    }

    shared_ptr(const shared_ptr &r): px_(r.px_), pn_(r.pn_) {
    }

    ~shared_ptr() {
    }

    explicit shared_ptr(const weak_ptr<T> &r): px_(0), pn_(r.pn_) {
        if (!pn_.empty()) {
            px_ = r.px_;
        }
    }

    void reset(T *p) {
        if (p == px_)
            return;

        this_type(p).swap(*this);
    }

    T* get() {
        return px_;
    }

    void swap(shared_ptr &r) {
        std::swap(px_, r.px_);
        pn_.swap(r.pn_);
    }

    shared_ptr& operator= (const shared_ptr<T> &r) {
        this_type(r).swap(*this);
        return *this;
    }


    bool operator! () const {
        return !px_;
    }

    T& operator* () const {
        return *px_;
    }

    T* operator-> () const {
        return px_;
    }

private:
    T *px_;
    shared_count pn_;

    friend class weak_ptr<T>;
};

template<typename T>
class weak_ptr
{
public:
    weak_ptr(): px_(0), pn_() {
    }

    weak_ptr(const weak_ptr &r): px_(r.px_), pn_(r.pn_) {
    }

    weak_ptr(const shared_ptr<T> &r) {
        px_ = r.px_;
        pn_ = r.pn_;
    }

    weak_ptr & operator=(const weak_ptr &r) {
        px_ = r.px_;
        pn_ = r.pn_;
        return *this;
    }

    shared_ptr<T> lock() const {
        return shared_ptr<T>(*this);
    }

    int use_count() const {
        return pn_.use_count();
    }

private:
    T *px_;
    weak_count pn_;

    friend class shared_ptr<T>;
};

} // namespace MY_DEMO
// vim: set et ts=4 sts=4 sw=4:

由于 weak_ptr 都是跟对应的强指针一起使用的(在这里就是 shared_ptr)。 因此,我们同时给出了 shared_ptr 和 weak_ptr 的实现。 这个实现是基于之前 shared_ptr 的实现来修改的。

可以看到 shared_ptr 之前贡献 px_ 的所有权, 而 weak_ptr 并没有对 px_ 的所有权。 weak_ptr 要使用 px_ 之前要转换为 shared_ptr 才能使用。 当所有的 shared_ptr 生命周期都结束时会删除 px_ 。

测试

测试循环引用

首先用我们的实现来替代标准库的实现来测试循环引用的例子

#include <vector>
#include <iostream>

// Use shared_ptr and weak_ptr above

using MY_DEMO::shared_ptr;
using MY_DEMO::weak_ptr;
using std::cout;
using std::endl;
using std::string;
using std::vector;

struct Person;

struct Team {
    Team() { cout << "Team constructor" << endl; }
    ~Team() { cout << "Team destructor" << endl; }
    vector<shared_ptr<Person> > persons;
    string name;
};

struct Person {
    Person() { cout << "Person constructor" << endl; }
    ~Person() { cout << "Person destructor" << endl; }
    weak_ptr<Team> team;
    string name;

    void show() {
        shared_ptr<Team> t = team.lock();
        if (!t) {
            cout << "Team not found" << endl;
            return;
        }

        cout << name << " in " << t->name << endl;
    }
};

int main()
{
    shared_ptr<Team> pt(new Team());
    shared_ptr<Person> pp(new Person());
    pt->name = "Test team";
    pt->persons.push_back(pp);
    pp->team = pt;
    pp->name = "Jack";
    pp->show();
    return 0;
}
// vim: set et ts=4 sts=4 sw=4:

输出为:

Team constructor
Person constructor
Jack in Test team
Team destructor
Person destructor

可以看到可以正常释放资源。

测试 shared_ptr 生命周期结束

在上文我们说过原始指针的其中一个缺点是无法知道资源释放已经被释放, 我们看看 weak_ptr 能否解决这个问题。

#include <iostream>

// Use shared_ptr and weak_ptr above

using MY_DEMO::shared_ptr;
using MY_DEMO::weak_ptr;
using std::cout;
using std::endl;

int main()
{
    weak_ptr<int> test;
    {
        shared_ptr<int> tmp(new int(2));
        test = tmp;
        if (test.lock().get()) {
            cout << "test: " << *test.lock() << endl;
        }
    }

    if (test.lock().get()) {
        cout << "test: " << *test.lock() << endl;
    } else {
        cout << "test: null" << endl;
    }

    return 0;
}
// vim: set et ts=4 sts=4 sw=4:

输出为:

test: 2
test: null

可以看到当 shared_ptr 释放资源后, weak_ptr 是可以知道资源已经释放的。